Like his 11 competitors in the final round of Friday's playoffs, Dillon waited too late to qualify.
None of the 12 cars reached the time line before the five-minute timeout, leaving none of the 12 drivers with qualifying speed. In this event, the results return to turn 2, where Dillon recorded the fastest speed.
Pole is the fourth in Dillon's career.
"It was fun there. That goes back to turn 2 when (the observer) Andy Houston did a great job to make us a hole (on the track), "said Dillon.
"Our car has been good all day. I felt like we had the fastest car here. It's good to have this pole. It was wild right there. Everyone was fighting for that.
"(Kyle Busch) took off and I exchanged a little bit. I just waited and nobody would come out, but I was good with that because I knew it would come back to us.
Back in round two, Kevin Harvick is second, Aric Almirola third, Kyle Busch fourth and Joey Logano fifth.
Denny Hamlin, Ryan Newman, Chase Elliott, Clint Bowyer, Ryan Blaney, Jimmie Johnson and Ricky Stenhouse Jr. round out the top 12 starters.
In the second round, 23 of the 24 cars had to start a crazy race to wait until the last minute before completing their qualification attempt.
The teams thought that a draft would produce the fastest speed, but no one wanted to be the first car on the track.
Once they've all crossed the finish line, Austin Dillon is again at the top of the leaderboard, followed by Harvick, Almirola, Kyle Busch and Logano.
Hamlin, Newman, Elliott, Bowyer, Blaney, Johnson and Stenhouse also took part in the final round.
Among those who failed to move forward was Kurt Busch, who was the only car to run a single car in the second round, and Kyle Larson, who ended up being the first car in the project.
"That's how I managed most things," said Busch. "I did not feel confident enough in our car to go wide open in the project."
Brad Keselowski, Daniel Hemric, William Byron and Alex Bowman also failed.
Austin Dillon continued to show his speed in single-seater and led the way in the first round of qualifying.
The average Dillon lap speed of 179.951 mph slightly surpassed Logano (179.515 mph) and Elliott (179.506 mph). Blaney was fourth and Almirola completed the top 10.
Buescher, Johnson, Byron, DeBenedetto and Newman complete the Top 10.
Among the winners of the race, Martin Truex Jr., 27th on Sunday.
"We fought a bit on Fridays, but I know it will be right tomorrow," said Truex. "We will have to pass some cars on Sunday but I know we can do it."
Paul Menard, Bubba Wallace and Michael McDowell are not moving forward either.
While there was less than eight minutes left in the 10-minute session, Chase Elliott interrupted Turn 2 to reveal a warning. He did not seem to hit anything.
"Just get off the ground," Elliott said on his team's radio.
Newman saw his car boss ejected for the rest of the weekend after his No. 6 Ford failed at the pre-qualifying inspection, twice on Friday. He will also lose 15 minutes of practice time during Saturday 's final practice session.