Blaming Tuskegee’s syphilis study for black communities’ mistrust of vaccines doesn’t quite catch it


“I am determined to make sure that people who historically have not been seen or who have felt undervalued know that they matter, that they are extremely important,” said Manning, professor of medicine. and Associate Vice President of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion in the Department of Medicine at Emory University in Atlanta.

“The biggest problem with citing the Untreated Syphilis Study as the reason people say ‘no’ is that it creates one of the reasons a large group of very different people, and individuals, feel this way. they do, ”Manning said. “Blacks are not a monolith.”

Manning received his bachelor’s degree from what is now Tuskegee University.

In 1932, the United States Public Health Department began working with what was then the Tuskegee Institute to record the natural progression of syphilis in black men in an attempt to justify treatment programs for them.

The researchers initially included black men who did not have syphilis and black men who had the disease but who agreed to be examined and treated.

Pictured is a Maryland resident receiving the Moderna Covid-19 vaccine at a vaccination clinic on March 23.  Structural racism is a concern that keeps some people of color from getting vaccinated during the pandemic.

However, the researchers did not tell the men the real goal of the study, which was to let the syphilis progress so that the researchers could prove that black men needed treatment programs. When penicillin became the leading treatment for syphilis in 1947, researchers did not offer it to participants. The six-month study actually lasted 40 years.

The syphilis study’s blame for reluctance to immunize or low medical participation from black communities persists, despite recent studies that have proven that black people, as patients, face high rates of experiences. higher, including untreated pain, or complications or death after surgery, than whites.

For communities of color, there are other factors to consider, Manning said, including access to immunization clinics, needle phobias and literacy. To facilitate an open and empathetic dialogue about these factors, Manning shares his conversations about the vaccine on social media.

In a recent JAMA Health Forum article on vaccine reluctance as a scapegoat for structural racism, Manning said, Dr Giselle Corbie-Smith wrote that instead of relying on high-tech approaches, “we need cutting-edge (i.e. person-to-person) practices, especially in black and brown communities, to fill the digital divide ”. Corbie-Smith is a distinguished Kenan professor of social medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
“For me, social media is one of the ways to be very connected … as we create spaces for us to send messages to people in a way that works for us,” Manning said. “My big push on social networks, at least in the son on twitter, was to individualize people and to get out of the idea that one story works for everyone when it comes to Blacks and Maroons. ”

CNN: What are the issues with attributing hesitation to coronavirus vaccination or low vaccination rates among blacks in the Syphilis Study?

Manning: Even this term “hesitant” is perilous. The language we use around the process of people’s deliberation is a racial issue. Because if a non-minority group were deliberating, they would probably be described differently. Each person’s deliberation process begins with deciding the scale of the decision and its personal impact.

Beyond the issues of access to vaccines for blacks, there are unique factors blacks need to consider in their deliberation process that others may not have to consider. If you are not a person from a group with a long history of being marginalized, abused, experienced, overpolished and living with health disparities … If you don’t turn on the TV and can’t see people who look like your dad with a knee on their neck and a gun on their back – then you can have the luxury of never having to think that this vaccine might not be in your best interest. Not everyone is so lucky.
When black people are suspicious of the vaccine, it is important to listen and understand why

I walked around the Atlanta community asking mostly black people what they think of the vaccine. One guy hadn’t decided to get the shot yet and he was pretty sure he wouldn’t.

He said, “I have never seen anything good in this country being offered to the poor at the same time as the rich. I can’t think of any example of something really good that the poor can have too. school, not health care, nothing. So why should it be any different? I’m skeptical of anything available to me. “

He told me to give an example of something good that was first offered to the poor. I couldn’t think of anything. These things play into how some people feel.

CNN: What are the other reasons for the hesitation, deliberation or refusal of the Covid-19 vaccine among black communities?

Manning: You may have heard that the second dose can make you sick, but you cannot stop working. Maybe you pass out when a needle comes your way. Maybe you don’t think you are vulnerable. Maybe you don’t know anyone who has had the vaccine yet, and you just need more time to see.

Difficulty in accessing vaccines is also an obstacle that can be wrongly interpreted as a refusal. We need to take into account the differences between people and their resources, for example whether or not people have the Internet, can see well, are proficient in technology, have transportation, or are health literate, even literate. For people from historically marginalized groups, these are barriers.

CNN: One of the problems with the syphilis study was the lack of informed consent. Among black people, are you aware of any concerns about informed consent related to coronavirus vaccines?

Manning: I am enrolled in the Moderna coronavirus vaccine trial. So when someone tells me there weren’t any blacks in the trials, I can say, “No, you’re watching one, and I can tell you what it was like.” That said, don’t think that people who worry about how quickly the vaccine was developed and that maybe something might happen later is unreasonable. But, in my experience, I find that a lot of people are open to listening to the facts.
Fauci wants people to know that one of the main scientists who developed the Covid-19 vaccine is a black woman

Regarding the syphilis study, the most important thing I stress is that the participants were not offered treatment. In the Moderna trial, when the vaccine was successful and was going to receive emergency use authorization, those of us who had received the placebo were offered the vaccine – which is different from what s went into the study on untreated syphilis. So times are different. Plus, more black people are in leadership positions and are scientists at the table.

CNN: Why do health professionals still blame the syphilis study for reluctance to vaccination or low rates of vaccination against Covid-19 among blacks?

Manning: Probably because the study was fairly recent and high profile. But if we’re being honest, the examples of medical abuse of blacks started long before either of us was born and continued to occur after the untreated syphilis study. Since the beginning of our country, a system based on one race as supreme has been built. The way our system was constructed – combined with the resulting prejudices – has demonstrated time and time again that there has often not been the same level of thought accorded to blacks as it is to whites. It is unfortunate but true.

CNN: What should healthcare professionals do to alleviate barriers to vaccination and reluctance among blacks?

Manning: Treat each patient as an individual. Ask them why they are feeling what they are feeling and listen. Build trusting relationships through cultural humility. It is so important to continue to diversify our medical workforce so that we can have voices like mine at the tables to say what I am saying. If your experience is that your life is not as valued as that of someone who is unlike you, but someone asks you to do something, you have reason to believe that the value of your life is not. may not have been taken into consideration. when that was developed.

Reluctance to vaccines may not be the reason people of color are getting Covid injections at a lower rate
If people feel better calling all of this “mistrust”, fine. But in reality, it is too complicated to qualify as hesitation or mistrust of vaccines. The vaccine deliberation is what we need to talk about: what factors do we need to consider for your deliberation process? Who are you and what should I, as a doctor, talk to you about to help you feel more comfortable? As physicians, we teach students that you should ask patients open-ended questions that allow them to tell you how they are feeling. Now is a good time to remember this tool.

CNN: You are aware of the disparities black people face as patients and in society, but you are also a doctor. Do you have something to say to black people who are reluctant to get the coronavirus vaccine?

Manning: Your individual feelings matter. If you don’t feel confident enough to be vaccinated, keep the dialogue open, keep an open mind, and keep asking questions that can help you become more confident.

I also say that I care about you and that I love you. For this reason, I recommend that you get the vaccine, but I respect you enough to listen to you and continue an open dialogue as you try to make the decision that is best for you. And if you change your mind and decide now that you want to be vaccinated, I will welcome you with open arms.

You will not hear anything from me about what you have said before. I’m just going to ask you, “Do you want me to go into your right arm or your left arm?” Then I can answer all your questions. But it’s a matter of respect and of complex individuals who have the right to deliberate.

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