Good News Now HIV Medicine is Available
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lenti virus (retrovirus subgroup) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows opportunistic infections and life-threatening cancers to develop. Without treatment, the average survival time after HIV infection is estimated at 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. In most cases, HIV is a transmitted infection and occurs through contact or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, sperm and vaginal secretions. transmission can take place from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during delivery by exposure to her blood or vaginal secretions and through breast milk. In these body fluids, HIV is present as free virus particles and viruses in the infected immune cells.
HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, belonging to the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many common morphologies and biological properties. Many species are infected with lentiviruses, which are usually responsible for long-lasting diseases with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the genome of the viral RNA is converted (reverse transcription) to double-stranded DNA by an enzyme encoded by a virus, reverse transcriptase, which is transported with the viral genome in the viral particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into cellular DNA by an enzyme encoded by the virus, a co-factor integrase and host. Once integrated, the virus can become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system, for an indefinite period. The HIV virus can remain dormant in the human body for up to ten years after the primary infection. during this period, the virus does not cause symptoms. Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA can be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, which are packaged and released from the cell as new viral particles that will restart the replication cycle.
The structure of HIV is different from that of other retroviruses. It is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 120 nm, about 60 times smaller than a red blood cell. It is composed of two copies of positive-sense single-stranded RNA that encodes the nine viral genes surrounded by a conical capsid composed of 2,000 copies of the viral p24 protein. Single-stranded RNA is closely related to nucleocapsid proteins, p7. and enzymes necessary for virion development, such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease, and integrase. A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.
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