Great white sharks revealed by the genome




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Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) have been making headlines lately. From the scientific research that points them to the disappearance of the famous Megalodon at great whites get lost in some parts of South Africawe can not seem to escape them.

A great white shark caught in the island of Guadalupe, Mexico.Getty

Urban explorer Luke McPherson once again put these predators on the front page when he posted a video on YouTube last November at an abandoned animal park in Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. McPherson told 9News he did not think that the video would become so viral that the intrusions intensified and the police issued warnings. "I was expecting to have a few thousand views," he commented on the site. McPherson was one of many callers for people to stop entering the park.

A great white shark … in a wildlife park? This is not a hoax! Meet Rosie, a five meter tall white shark that has been kept in formaldehyde and has been home to Wildlife Wonderland for more than 20 years. She was first caught in a fishing net off the south coast of Australia in 1998 and exhibited in a Victorian ecotourism center. Since then, Rosie has moved on until she has landed where she is now. While she slowly disintegrated, people tried to break the glass that enveloped her and even threw a broken television into her tank. Not to mention the dangerous and overwhelming emanations of formaldehyde were released as vandals took hold of the top of its tank. But soon, Rosie will have another home, having been purchased by Crystal World and soon to be featured on their Devon Meadows site. Here, she will continue to bite her teeth and captivate audiences around the world. She could even reveal the secret of her species: her genome is one and a half times larger than ours.

The Great White Shark is also called Big White Pointer, White Shark or White Pointer. It's a big shark (measuring at least 20 feet long or 6.1 meters) that rages around the world and that attacks a variety of marine animals, including fish, fish and seabirds. Other sharks, marine mammals and even seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its kind Carcharodonand faces many threats that have resulted in international protection. While they are infamous thanks to the movie Jawsthere are still many things we do not know about them. Scientists have just revealed that they have detected many genetic traits in their genome, which may explain their long evolutionary success, lifespan, healing, and so on.

Rosie the shark in his tank leaking at Wildlife Wonderland, an abandoned place. & Nbsp;photocredit: & nbsp; Facebook / Save Rosie The SharkFacebook / Save Rosie Shark

"Not only was there a surprisingly large number of genome stability genes that contained these adaptive changes, but there was also an enrichment of several of these genes, highlighting the importance of this genetic adjustment in white shark, Mahmood Shivji, co-author of the study, director of the Shark Research Center of the Save Our Seas Foundation and the Guy Harvey Research Institute of Nova Southeastern University (NSU) in Florida.

The research team found that the genome had one of the highest proportions of long intercalated nuclear elements (called "LINEs") of all vertebrates. LINEs can change their location (that's why they are sometimes called "jumping genes") and could help repair DNA, thus allowing it to remain stable. More details & nbsp;appear& nbsp; in the journal & nbsp;PNAS. Shivji and his colleagues suggest that "the molecular emphasis of adaptation on genome stability" in the DNA of this famous shark has allowed this animal to dominate the seas as long as it should . If you keep an eye: they beat Megalodon, and it now appears that he has outstanding superpowers for healing wounds. "Molecular adaptation to wound healing was also evident, with positive selection of key genes involved in the wound healing process," the researchers wrote.

These superpowers are perhaps the reason why they have such an amazing sense of smell! Researchers have discovered many vomeronasal type 2 (V2R) genes that can shed light on how sharks are able to smell blood in the water.

Silhouette of great white shark on the island of Guadalupe, Mexico.Getty

Co-author Michael Stanhope adds, "We have found positive gene enrichment selections and enrichment involving several genes related to some of the most fundamental pathways of wound healing, including a key gene for blood clotting. These adaptations involving wound healing genes may underlie the much vaunted ability of sharks to heal effectively even the largest wounds. "

Many species of sharks are continually fished for their fins. Many believe that the species does not have cancer (false) and that ingestion of the cartilage of the fins will help prevent diseases (also fake). Their cartilage and their fins may not help fight cancer, but their genome can be helpful in helping to find treatments, as well as other medical areas such as age-related diseases and diseases. wound healing treatments.

Although sharks have been thriving for more than 400 million years, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has recently indicated that the risk of extinction of sharks and rays has soared to 31% ( against 25% previously). "The decoding of the white shark genome will also help in the conservation of this shark and related sharks, many of which have rapidly declining populations due to overfishing," co-author Steven O & # 39; Brien, also at NSU , said Cosmos. "The genome data will be an important asset in understanding the dynamics of white shark populations to better conserve this amazing species that has captured the imagination of so many people."

Rosie and these great white sharks roaming the ocean have a lot to teach us about themselves. While she awaits the rescue of Wildlife Wonderland, scientists will continue to reveal her secrets.

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Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) have been making headlines lately. From the scientific research that blames them for the disappearance of the famous Megalodon to the great Whites who disappear in parts of South Africa, we can not seem to escape them.

A great white shark caught in the island of Guadalupe, Mexico.Getty

Urban explorer Luke McPherson once again put these predators on the front page when he posted a video on YouTube last November at an abandoned animal park in Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. McPherson told 9News that he did not think the video would become so viral that the intrusions escalated and the police issued warnings. "I was expecting to have a few thousand views," he commented on the site. McPherson was one of many callers for people to stop entering the park.

A great white shark … in a wildlife park? This is not a hoax! Meet Rosie, a five meter tall white shark that has been kept in formaldehyde and has been home to Wildlife Wonderland for more than 20 years. She was first caught in a fishing net off the south coast of Australia in 1998 and exhibited in a Victorian ecotourism center. Since then, Rosie has moved on until she has landed where she is now. While she slowly disintegrated, people tried to break the glass that enveloped her and even threw a broken television into her tank. Not to mention the dangerous and overwhelming emanations of formaldehyde were released as vandals took hold of the top of its tank. But soon, Rosie will have another home, having been purchased by Crystal World and soon to be featured on their Devon Meadows site. Here, she will continue to bite her teeth and captivate audiences around the world. She could even reveal the secret of her species: her genome is one and a half times larger than ours.

The Great White Shark is also called Big White Pointer, White Shark or White Pointer. It's a big shark (measuring at least 20 feet long or 6.1 meters) that rages around the world and that attacks a variety of marine animals, including fish, fish and seabirds. Other sharks, marine mammals and even seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its kind Carcharodonand faces many threats that have resulted in international protection. While they are infamous thanks to the movie Jawsthere are still many things we do not know about them. Scientists have just revealed that they have detected many genetic traits in their genome, which may explain their long evolutionary success, lifespan, healing, and so on.

Rosie the shark in her tank leaking at the abandoned Wildlife Wonderland. Photocredit: Facebook / Save Rosie The SharkFacebook / Save Rosie Shark

"Not only was there a surprisingly large number of genome stability genes that contained these adaptive changes, but there was also an enrichment of many of these genes, highlighting the importance of this genetic adjustment in white shark" says study author Mahmood Shivji, director of the Shark Research Center of the Save Our Seas Foundation and the Guy Harvey Research Institute of Nova Southeastern University (NSU) in Florida.

The research team found that the genome had one of the highest proportions of long intercalated nuclear elements (called "LINEs") of all vertebrates. LINEs can change their location (that's why they are sometimes called "jumping genes") and could help repair DNA, thus allowing it to remain stable. More details appear in the log PNAS. Shivji and his colleagues suggest that "the molecular emphasis of adaptation on genome stability" in the DNA of this famous shark has allowed this animal to dominate the seas as long as it should . If you keep an eye: they beat Megalodon, and it now appears that he has outstanding superpowers for healing wounds. "Molecular adaptation to wound healing was also evident, with positive selection of key genes involved in the wound healing process," the researchers wrote.

These superpowers are perhaps the reason why they have such an amazing sense of smell! Researchers have discovered many vomeronasal type 2 (V2R) genes that can shed light on how sharks are able to smell blood in the water.

Silhouette of great white shark on the island of Guadalupe, Mexico.Getty

Co-author Michael Stanhope adds, "We have discovered enrichments in positive selection and genetic content involving several genes related to some of the most fundamental pathways of wound healing, including a key gene for blood clotting. to effectively heal even large wounds. "

Many species of sharks are continually fished for their fins. Many believe that the species does not suffer from cancer (false) and that the ingestion of the cartilage fins will help fight diseases (also false). Their cartilage and their fins may not help fight cancer, but their genome can be helpful in helping to find treatments, as well as other medical areas such as age-related diseases and diseases. wound healing treatments.

Although sharks have been thriving for more than 400 million years, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has recently indicated that the risk of extinction of sharks and rays has soared to 31% ( against 25% previously). "The decoding of the white shark genome will also help in the conservation of this shark and associated sharks, many of which have a rapidly declining population due to overfishing," said co-author Steven O & # 39; Brien, also from NSU to Cosmos. to be a valuable asset in understanding the dynamics of white shark populations in order to better conserve this amazing species that has captivated the imagination of so many people. "

Rosie and those great white sharks still wandering in the ocean have a lot to teach us about themselves. While waiting for her to be saved by Wildlife Wonderland, scientists will continue to reveal her secrets.


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